Below is a list of studies and research referenced throughout our website and within our downloads.
Medications—including anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, and tricyclic antidepressants—will relieve the pain in roughly 75% of patients.
- Pollack, BE et al. Repeat radiosurgery for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics. 2005 Jan 1; 61(1): 192-5.
Outcomes for Radiosurgery: 80–85% cure with at least 25% recurrence
- Verheul JB et al. Gamma knife® surgery for trigeminal neuralgia: a review of 450 consecutive cases. Journal of Neurosurgery. 2010 Dec; 113 Suppl: 160-7.
- Sheehan J et al. Gamma knife® surgery for trigeminal neuralgia: outcomes and prognostic factors. Journal of Neurosurgery. 2005 Mar; 102(3): 434-41
Outcomes for Percutaneous Rhizotomy: 90–95% cure with 20–25% recurrence
- Taha JM et al. A prospective 15-year follow up of 154 consecutive patients with trigeminal neuralgia treated by percutaneous stereotactice radiofrequency thermal rhizotomy. Journal of Neurosurgery. 1995 Dec; 83(6): 989-93.
Outcomes for Microvascular Decompression (MVD): 90–95% cure with 20–25% recurrence
- Barker FG 2nd et al. The long-term outcome of microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. New England Journal of Medicine. 1996 Apr 25; 334(17): 1077-83.
Ideal Candidate for Microvascular Decompression (MVD): Many patients of all ages with limited anesthesia risk; MVD for TN is a safe procedure even in the elderly; the risk of serious morbidity or mortality is similar to that in younger patients
- Sekula RF Jr. et al. Microvascular decompression for elderly patients with trigeminal neuralgia: a prospective study and systematic review with meta-analysis. Journal of Neurosurgery. 2011 Jan; 114(1): 172-9. Epub 2010 Jul 23.
In cases of particularly intractable trigeminal neuralgia, multiple surgical treatments—which can be attempted in any order—may be necessary. Although scarring from radiosurgery was once believed to prevent the use of other surgical techniques, it has since been found this is not the case. MVD is occasionally repeated, especially after long periods of relief; a Mayo Clinic study found that radiosurgery provided adequate pain relief to 80% of patients when it was repeated. (In other words, radiosurgery relieves pain in 80 out of 100 TN patients. If the remaining 20 patients were given a subsequent round of radiosurgery, 16 of those patients—or 80%—would gain relief.) PRR can be utilized multiple times. Occasionally, partial cutting of the nerve (partial sensory rhizotomy, or PSR) is necessary when multiple other attempts have failed.
- Huang CF et al. Microsurgical outcomes after failed repeated Gamma Knife® surgery for refractory trigeminal neuralgia. Journal of Neurosurgery. 2006 Dec; 105 Suppl: 117-9
- Pollack BE et al. Repeat radiosurgery for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics. 2005 Jan 1; 61(1): 192-5.